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Alexander , Pure agraphia and unilat-. T aborelli and L. V ignolo, Dissociated disorders. Neur osurg ery , and Psychiatry 41 , — T rouard, The neural substrates. Aphasiology 17 , — Handbook of Clinical Neur ology ,. V alenstein and K. Heilman, Dissociations of writing and praxis: Oxford Univ ersity Press, Ne w Y ork, Ellis, Spelling and writing and reading and speaking ,.
Normality and P athology in Co gnitive Functions , A. Ellis, Normal writing processes and peripheral acquired. Albert, Human Neur opsychology , Wile y ,. Heidler , The crucial role. W ityk, Neural substrates of the cogni-. Evidence from MR diffu-. Kotera, Processes of writing in alexia with agraphia and.
Y amashita and Y. T oyokura, Agraphia and kinesthetic alexia. Y ohikawa and M. MRI study on the neural substrates for writing, Human Brain. Mapping 13 , 34— Kawamura, Localization and symptomatology of pure.
Shinkei Shinrigaku 6 , 16— Sugishita, Pure agraphia due to left posterior. Y amaura, Alexia with agraphia of kanji Japanese mor-. Y ano and H.
T wo cases of pure agraphia due to left parieto-occipital lesion. Calvanio, Pure agraphia and. Moriwaki, A case with agraphia due to cerebral infarc-. T anaka, A case of alexia in kana and agra phia.
Shibasaki, Modulation of the visual word retriev al system in. Journal of Cognitive Neur oscience 14 , — Shibasaki, Participation of the. The Handbook of Adult Language. Integrative Cognitive Neuropsychology , Neurolo gy ,.
Y ork, , pp. Beeson, The role of left posterior infe-. Clinical Neur opsychology , 4th. V alenstein, eds, Oxford Univ ersity. Press, Ne w Y ork, , pp. Heilman, Alexia and agraphia with spared. DeMayer , The quantitativ e cortical origin. Frontal pure agraphia for kanji or kana: Mechanism of short-term memory and repetition in conduc-. Neur ological Sciences , — Sakuta, Ale xia caused by a fusiform or posterior in-.
Journal of the Neurological. Sciences , — Pure alexia for words in contrast to. Neur ological Sciences , 81— Heilman, The role of visual. Imanaga, Lexical agraphia in the Japanese language, Pure.
Brain , — Y amadori and S. Murata, Selectiv e Kana. Different neural substrates for Kanji and Kana writing: Murakami, A case with. Shinrigaku 9 , — Y ousry , U.
Winkler , Localization of the motor hand. Submit y our manuscr ipts at. Ste m Ce lls. Di sease Mark ers. Oxi dative M edicin e and. PP AR R esearch.
Imm unology Resea rc h. Ob e sit y. C omput ational and. Diabetes Res ear ch. Res earch a nd T reatm ent. Gas t ro entero l og y. Research and Prac tice. Alternative M ed icine. Another activation clusters in the parietal lobule was located in the bilateral superior parietal lobule BA 7. Lesion studies Sakurai et al. This region is considered as a key neural substrate for the motor components of writing, such as the storage of visuospatial or motor engrams for letters and words linked to handwriting Sakurai et al.
However, an electrical cortical stimulation study reported that stimulation of the anterior superior parietal lobule elicited both graphemic errors and lexical spelling errors in a writing-to-dictation task, suggesting that the superior parietal lobule is also involved in access to the spelling of lexical items Magrassi et al.
Writing is an essential tool for human communication and involves multiple linguistic, cognitive, and motor processes. Chinese, a logographic writing system, differs remarkably from the writing systems of alphabetic languages. The neural substrates of Chinese writing are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI in a copying task, this study probed the neural underpinnings of orthographic access during Mandarin Chinese writing by employing the word-frequency effect.
Moreover, psychophysiological interaction PPI analysis demonstrated that the word-frequency effect modulated functional connectivity within the frontal-occipital networks and the parietal-occipital networks. Together, these findings illustrate the neural correlates of orthographic access for Mandarin Chinese writing, shedding new light on the cognitive architecture of writing across various writing systems.
On the motor side, the control of handwriting movements is supported mainly by the left superior frontal gyrus SFG extending to the precentral gyrus, the left superior parietal lobule SPL , and the right cerebellum Ce. These re- gions display functional specificity for writing, as they respond more strongly to writing than to matched move- ments Planton et al. The impact of spelling regularity on handwriting production: A coupled fMRI and kinematics study.
Current models of writing assume that the orthographic processes involved in spelling retrieval and the motor processes involved in the control of the hand are independent. This view has been challenged by behavioral studies, which showed that the linguistic features of words impact motor execution during handwriting.
We designed an experiment coupling functional magnetic resonance imaging and kinematic recordings during a writing to dictation task. Participants wrote orthographically regular and irregular words. The presence of an irregularity impacts both the initiation of the movement and its fine motor execution.
At the brain level, the left inferior frontal and fusiform gyri, two regions belonging to the core of the written language system, were found to be sensitive to the presence of an irregularity and to its position in the word during writing execution.
Moreover, the left superior parietal lobule, the left superior frontal gyrus and the right cerebellum, three motor-related regions, displayed a stronger response to irregular than regular words. These results constitute direct evidence that orthographic and motor processes occur in a continuous and interactive fashion during writing. Writing requires at least three sources of information: These three components are probably transmitted from the temporal and parietal lobes to the frontal lobe and linked together in the premotor area to be sent to the motor hand area to produce spelling or typing.
We report a patient with phonological agraphia selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords and acalculia mental arithmetic difficulties with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus Brodmann area 6 and the adjacent postcentral gyrus.
The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months.
These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory. The left dorsal premotor cortex is not the only part of the brain wherein lesions can cause motor deficits predominantly affecting writing.
Motor control of handwriting in the developing brain: This review focuses on the acquisition of writing motor aspects in adults, and in 5-to year-old children without learning disabilities.
We first describe the behavioural aspects of adult writing and dominant models based on the notion of motor programs. We show that handwriting acquisition is characterized by the transition from reactive movements programmed stroke-by-stroke in younger children, to an automatic control of the whole trajectory when the motor programs are memorized at about 10 years old.
Then, we describe the neural correlates of adult writing, and the changes that could occur with learning during childhood. The acquisition of a new skill is characterized by the involvement of a network more restricted in space and where neural specificity is increased in key regions. The cerebellum and the left dorsal premotor cortex are of fundamental importance in motor learning, and could be at the core of the acquisition of handwriting. The above interpretation is supported by data from neuropsychological studies on writing disorders showing that damage to the left SPL can cause pure apraxic agraphia English: A lesion of the SPL therefore translates to a sequence motor programming problem Otsuki et al.
Activation of writing-specific brain regions when reading Chinese as a second language Effects of training modality and transfer to novel characters. We examined the implication of training modality on the cortical representation of Chinese words in adult learners of Chinese. In particular, we tested the implication of the neural substrates of writing in a reading task.
The brain network sustaining finger writing was defined neuroanatomically based on an independent functional localizer, and brain activations during reading were analysed according to the position of the activation peaks in this localizer. We compared the brain activation elicited by Chinese words learned via writing vs. Our results in the reading task showed that activations of the brain network were in close vicinity to the main activation peaks of the finger writing localizer.
Moreover, the response of several parts of the writing network varied according to training modality and type of character learned vs. Finally, the response of the left mid-fusiform region, known to be elicited during orthographic processing, was also affected by training modality and the linguistic properties of stimuli.
At the behavioral level, global handwriting quality during the training sessions was correlated to the final translation performance. Our results demonstrate substantial overlap in the neural substrates of reading and writing, and indicate that some parietofrontal and subcortical regions sustaining handwriting are differentially involved in reading depending on the type of knowledge associated with words semantic vs.
A main goal of awake surgery is to preserve language in order to facilitate return to work and maintain quality of life. Although spelling has become crucial in daily life, it has received little attention in awake surgery practice. We review assessments of spelling carried out in awake surgery studies, to inspect how current neurofunctional theories of spelling may guide pre-, intra- and post-operative neurosurgical practice.
A systematic database search in Embase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science identified studies reporting on spelling assessment in glioma patients undergoing awake surgery. Twenty-three studies were included, of which only 9 report details on spelling assessments. We evaluate the incidence of dysgraphia in glioma patients, the types of spelling errors as a function of tumor location, and the specificity of spelling sites with respect to other language functions.
Post-operative dysgraphia arose in Intra-operative stimulation interfered only with handwriting in A network of frontal, parietal and temporal regions was found to underlie central and peripheral spelling processes.
Evidence on spelling performance in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas is surprisingly scarce. With the limitations inherent in the small number of observations, results converge with the neurofunctional knowledge accruing from studies of stroke cases. Such knowledge should be exploited in more thorough investigations of spelling skills in glioma patients. Implications for clinical and neuroscientific practice are discussed, as well as possible strategies to overcome current limitations.
The dystypia and the neural basis of typewriting. Sep High Brain Funct Res. The opportunity of using a personal computer is increasing in everyday life and, accordingly, the impact of typing disorder on our social activities is becoming a serious issue. To investigate the neural substrate of typewriting and to detect the crucial lesions for typewriting disorder, we have intensively examined a case with isolated typing impairment, and conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI study in healthy volunteers.
As a result, two brain regions were activated during both the typing and the writing tasks: Furthermore, direct comparison between the typing and the writing task revealed greater activation of left posteromedial intraparietal cortex in the typing task. It is suggested that typewriting is a complex cognitive process that involves multiple brain regions including the writing centers and the left posteromedial intraparietal cortex.
Accordingly, it is supposed that the different brain lesions might cause different types of typing disorders. Further study is needed to establish the symptomatology and the training methods for typewriting disorders.
Patient with brain injury at thalamus has not only the neurological symptoms such as motor paralysis or sensory impairment, but also a variety of neuropsychological symptoms such as aphasia, unilateral spatial neglect, and memory impairment. On the other hand, few cases who had reading and writing disorder without aphasia has been reported. Dorsomedial nucleus and the outer ventral nucleus, posterolateral ventral nucleus, which is projected to motor and sensory areas on the cerebral cortex, is known as the thalamus of the localized lesions caused the disorders of reading and writing.
SPECT in some study shows a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe of the same side as a function lesion.
A year-old woman was hospitalized for rehabilitation from the aftereffects of an anoxic brain injury. In addition to a general cognitive decline, agraphia of kana and kanji was noted at the time of admission, which had advanced to agraphia which is dominant in kanji at the time of hospital discharge.
Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed no stroke lesions, and brain perfusion scintigraphy found a decreased blood flow in the bilateral parietal lobes.
We hereby report on this case because case reports on agraphia caused by anoxic brain injury are extremely rare. Apraxia refers to an impairment in the performance of skilled motor acts. This is in the context of normal or near-normal elementary neurological function such as motor power and sensation. In addition a long list of specific exclusions and conditions that may masquerade as apraxia need to be excluded.
These include the domains of attention, cognition, motor deficits, and movement disorders: Human Brain Anatomy in Computerized Images. The role of left posterior inferior temporal cortex in spelling.
To determine whether damage to left posterior inferior temporal cortex PITC is associated with agraphia and to characterize the nature of the spelling impairment.
Left angular gyrus may play a critical role in spelling. However, this traditional view is challenged by reports of agraphia after left temporo-occipital lesions and by functional imaging studies demonstrating activation of left PITC during writing in normal individuals.
Patients with focal damage to the left temporo-occipital cortex and normal control subjects were administered a comprehensive spelling battery that included regular words, irregular words, and nonwords as stimuli.
Although patients performed worse than control subjects in all experimental conditions, the spelling deficit was particularly severe for irregular words, whereas regular word and nonword spelling were less impaired. Additional analyses indicated that orthographic regularity and word frequency had a much more pronounced effect on spelling accuracy in patients compared with control subjects.
Most errors on irregular words were phonologically plausible, consistent with reliance on a sublexical phonologic spelling strategy i. Overall, the spelling impairment of the patients showed the characteristic profile of lexical agraphia. The behavioral and neuroanatomic observations in the patients are consistent with functional imaging studies of writing in neurologically intact individuals and provide converging evidence for the role of left PITC in spelling.
Together, these findings implicate left PITC as a possible neural substrate of the putative orthographic lexicon that contains stored memory representations for the written forms of familiar words. Localization of the motor hand area to a knob on the precentral gyrus. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI we have evaluated the anatomical location of the motor hand area. The segment of the precentral gyrus that most often contained motor hand function was a knob-like structure, that is shaped like an omega or epsilon in the axial plane and like a hook in the sagittal plane.
On the cortical surface of cadaver specimens this precentral knob corresponded precisely to the characteristic 'middle knee' of the central sulcus that has been described by various anatomists in the last century. We were then able to show that this knob is a reliable landmark for identifying the precentral gyrus directly.
We therefore conclude that neural elements involved in motor hand function are located in a characteristic 'precentral knob' which is a reliable landmark for identifying the precentral gyrus under normal and pathological conditions.
It faces and forms the 'middle knee' of the central sulcus, is located just at the cross point between the precentral sulcus and the central sulcus, and is therefore also visible on the cortical surface.
Participation of the left posterior inferior temporal cortex in writing and mental recall of kanji orthography: A functional MRI study. Pure agraphia due to left posterior parietal infarction. Recently, several cases of pure agraphia caused by left parietal lobe lesion have been reported.
Most of the reported cases were caused by space-occupying lesions, but clinical descriptions and anatomical correlations were not sufficiently detailed. The present authors investigated two cases of pure agraphia caused by left posterior parietal infarction. The characteristics of the symptoms in both cases were: The main lesions in the CT scan were found in the left supramarginal gyrus and the upper parietal lobe. These observations suggest that pure agraphia may also be caused by left parietal lobe lesion.
Jan High Brain Funct Res. The neural substrates of writing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of writing have been derived from the study of individuals with acquired agraphia.
Functional neuroimaging offers another methodology to test these hypotheses in neurologically intact individuals. This study was designed to identify possible neural substrates for the linguistic and motor components of writing in normal English-speaking individuals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used with 12 adults to examine activation associated with generative writing of words from semantic categories contrasted with writing letters of the alphabet and drawing circles.
In addition, the generative writing condition was contrasted with a subvocal generative naming condition. Semantically guided retrieval of orthographic word forms for the generative writing condition revealed activation in the left inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the left posterior inferior temporal lobe BA However, no activation was detected in the left angular gyrus BA The motor components of writing were associated with activation in left fronto-parietal cortex including the region of the intraparietal sulcus, superior parietal lobule, dorsolateral and medial premotor cortex, and sensorimotor areas for the hand.
These observations suggest an important role of the left posterior inferior temporal cortex in lexical-orthographic processing and fail to support the long-held notion that the dominant angular gyrus is the storage site for orthographic representations of familiar words.
Our findings also demonstrate the involvement of left superior parietal and frontal premotor regions in translating orthographic information into appropriate hand movements. A case of alexia in Kana and agraphia in Kanji with the left temporo-parietal subcortical hematoma. Neural substrates of the cognitive processes underlying spelling: Evidence from MR diffusion and perfusion imaging.
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