Learn how the THC:CBD ratio in cannabis influences a specific strain's effects, and find out how that ratio is connected to the strain's genetics. Nonetheless, the THC:CBD ratio is a huge factor in how a strain will affect you. . University and a B.S. in genetics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. How much THC or CBD does your favorite cannabis product contain? Learn different ways Part one. How Genetics Influence THC to CBD Ratios · Part two.
| Ratios THC:CBD Leafly Influence Genetics Strain How
He is director of botany and cultivation for GW Pharmaceuticals, a company that is exploring how cannabis could help treat a range of illnesses ranging from epilepsy to cancer. For a drug that is widely seen as a trigger for acute psychotic illness in young users, this at first sounds preposterous. But, as Potter explains, the cannabis plant is much more than just a psychedelic weed. In high doses, THC can induce temporary schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms such as paranoia, delusions, anxiety and hallucinations.
Yet cannabis also contains a cannabinoid known as CBD or cannabidiol , which appears to have almost the exact opposite effect. Purified CBD has been shown to have antipsychotic and anti-anxiety effects, and can lessen the psychotic symptoms normally experienced by people given high doses of THC.
Unfortunately for the mental health of many young cannabis users, the chemical profile of the drug has changed drastically over the past three decades. Potter has analysed countless samples of street cannabis on behalf of the Home Office and the police, in parallel to his work cultivating the plant for medical research.
The origins of modern cannabis can be traced to California in the late s, when professional breeders began to select the most potent, THC-rich plants for the first time. Due to the complex genetics of the cannabis plant, growers selectively breeding THC-rich plants were also selecting against the gene that produces CBD. In other words, in the quest to make ever stronger cannabis, illicit growers may have inadvertently bred out a chemical that protected the mental health of users in the past.
Pot smokers in the UK never looked back and skunk is now by far the most prevalent type of cannabis sold illegally here. By , Potter could find hardly any traces of CBD at all in a batch of seized cannabis samples given to him for analysis by the Home Office. The exact effect this change has had on the mental health of cannabis users is hard to say — the link between cannabis and schizophrenia remains complex and controversial.
Researchers have struggled to prove whether cannabis causes psychosis, or whether people predisposed to psychosis are just more likely to smoke cannabis. The best evidence currently suggests that in people who are genetically at risk of schizophrenia , regular cannabis use doubles their risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms. But no long-term studies of people with schizophrenia have chemically analysed the type of cannabis the subjects were smoking.
Potter has seen the extreme effects of both substance abuse and schizophrenia in his role as a magistrate for his local court. He recounts a recent case where a seemingly pleasant teenager, suffering from acute and sudden psychotic illness, had turned to alcohol and become violent. The defendant, now diagnosed and medicated, will still be found guilty despite his temporary insanity. The need for new antipsychotic drugs is pressing.
Existing medication does little to treat the other disabling symptoms of the disease — chronic inflammation, low mood, anxiety, and cognitive impairment — and often has worrying side-effects including weight gain, involuntary movements and drowsiness. Results from double-blind, phase II clinical trials for CBD as a schizophrenia treatment will report next year. For now hopes rest on a small trial involving 39 patients with schizophrenia, 19 of whom were given the antipsychotic drug amisulpride, the rest CBD.
At the end of the four-week trial, both groups showed significant improvement in their symptoms, but the CBD cohort reported far fewer side effects. Potter and his team remain cautious, as it is not yet fully understood how CBD actually works — it is simplistic to say CBD just does the opposite of the psychosis-inducing THC. It has been found to have a variety of health-related benefits for the user. CBD is the second most well-known cannabinoid found in cannabis, and like most of the other phytocannabinoids, it is non-psychotropic.
These are the two most abundant and well-studied cannabinoids in marijuana, and both have been found in numerous published studies to have pain-relieving properties in humans. While they may be the most abundant, THC and CBD are certainly not the only compounds found in cannabis that are known to exert positive effects on human health.
In every cannabis plant, there is a unique mixture of hundreds of plant compounds, comprised of phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. Research suggests that these compounds too have an influence on our neurochemistry, and together they may work synergistically, producing better improvements in pain relief than anyone would produce on its own. This research supports the idea that it is best to use the whole cannabis plant, with CBD, THC, and the natural medley of additional compounds.
This harmony between the various plant chemicals found in marijuana is colloquially referred to as the entourage effect. The most well-studied compounds found in the marijuana plant that support the idea of the entourage effect are THC and CBD, which have been found to work differently together than when separate. Using these two compounds in concert has been shown to help mitigate side effects and enhance efficacy, with CBD plus THC showing more benefit for some conditions than THC alone.
It has also been found to extend the half-life of THC, which may help to extend the pain-relieving benefits. This has allowed the use of higher doses of THC in clinical trials for the treatment of pain caused by multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis.
When used in concert, a greater efficacy in treating these types of pain have been observed. Every strain of bud that you can purchase at a dispensary will be labeled with its THC and CBD content, which can be helpful when choosing which strain to choose for pain relief. CBD has been found to exhibit enhancements in treating pain both when used on its own and when used in combination with THC.
When used alone, CBD is largely best for inflammatory pain, such as that caused by arthritis or injuries. In one animal study on arthritis pain, it was found that the topical application of CBD led to a reduction in inflammation and pain. Another animal study found that CBD helps to reduce neuropathic pain through the suppression of chronic inflammation. CBD does not directly bind to the receptors found in the endocannabinoid system but rather works to modulate the effects of the endocannabinoids the cannabinoids found naturally in our bodies as well as working as a CB1 receptor antagonist.
The main mechanism by which CBD is thought to help mediate pain is by reducing inflammation , largely by blocking inflammatory mediators. It is also believed to potentiate glycine receptors, which help to regulate pain at the spinal level. This suppresses both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. THC is used clinically for the treatment of pain and studies find it helps relieve central and neuropathic pain. It is also used to help reduce pain in cancer, AIDS, and fibromyalgia patients, for which resistance to other pain treatments have been found.
The mode of action for THC is as a partial CB1 receptor agonist, which means that it will bind to these receptors but not fully which leads to the variability in effects documented when THC is present with other CB1 agonists, antagonists or both. It has been found to impact the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic systems — an action which may contribute to its pain-relieving benefits.
Additionally, THC has been found to act as an anti-inflammatory agent. While human studies have found benefits from the use of THC, CBD, and whole-plant marijuana in relieving pain, much of the evidence for this use comes from user reports and surveys. When searching for the best cannabis strains for pain relief, you will first want to consider how much THC and CBD is found in the strain.
This is because CBD can help to mediate the side effects of THC while also providing additional anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. One example would be if you are experiencing inflammation, yet you are wanting to go about your day normally, without the psychotropic effects of THC. Other times you may be in enough pain that you would like something that takes your mind off the pain while also offering pain relief. In one survey , participants reported that indicas helped more than sativas when it came to headaches, joint pain, neuropathy, and spasticity.
Users also reported indicas to be more helpful when it comes to sleep and sedation. Lastly, there are countless user reports on specific strains of weed that have been found to be powerful for relieving pain. While some of these strains are high CBD, indica strains, some strains of weed used for pain do not fall into this category. It may be that the other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids have come together in a harmonious balance that leads to strong pain-relieving properties.
There are limited studies examining the effect of CBD alone on pain in humans. When it comes to CBD only studies, the majority are preclinical or animal studies. That said, the research conducted thus far, along with countless user reports, suggests that CBD itself may be able to help relieve pain. Activation of cannabinoid receptors has been linked to the inhibition of pain. The exact mechanisms of action are still being researched, however, CBD has been found to increase the levels of endocannabinoids in the body, specifically anandamide.
It is plausible that this increase in endogenous endocannabinoids could have an impact on pain. Another study suggests that CBD in rats induced suppression of chronic inflammation and neuropathic pain through potentiating glycine receptors. Here we will examine the limited scientific evidence, along with theories relating to the use of CBD for pain. Neuropathic pain, also known as nerve pain, is a unique type of pain that is caused by injured, dysfunctional, or irritated nerves.
This pain tends to be chronic and severe, and with no known cure or remedy, every individual is left to try numerous strategies to find something that works for them. Some of the most common sources of neuropathy include diabetes, injury, cancer, infections, alcoholism, and autoimmune disorders. In an animal study , researchers found that oral supplementation of CBD led to improvements in neuropathic pain in rats. Back pain is one of the most common forms of both acute and chronic pain.
Acute back pain tends to be caused by an injury, such as by falling or lifting something heavy. Chronic back pain is that which lasts more than three months and is often caused by a ruptured or bulging disc, arthritis, osteoporosis, scoliosis, or nerve pain. Some back pain is partly caused by inflammation, and numerous preclinical and animal studies have found benefits of CBD for inflammation. Through possible reductions in both nerve and inflammatory pain, CBD may help relieve back pain.
When it comes to localized pain, topical CBD lotion or creams may be a great option. While human studies on the efficacy of CBD lotion are lacking, there are plenty of animal studies and personal accounts to support this use. In one study , researchers found that rats with arthritis treated with transdermal CBD experienced reductions in pain-related behaviors and inflammation.
Cannabis and CBD dosing for pain are highly individual. Studies have found a bell-shaped dose-response curve with cannabis extract, meaning that it slowly becomes more effective until it hits a certain point, and then the effectiveness decreases. To further complicate matters, the effective dose found in human studies varies greatly from one condition and one study to the next. However, doses of Sativex, an oral spray that delivers 2. CBD dosage for pain has not been examined in any human studies.
Like the Cannabis sativa extract, studies have found that exceeding the optimal dose of CBD can lead to a reduction in efficacy. In a study examining the effect of CBD on anxiety, mg and mg were not effective, where mg was. So where, then, should you start when it comes to dosing Cannabis sativa or CBD oil? Follow these steps when adding in a cannabis or CBD oil product:.
Scientists say most marijuana strains act basically the same
A cannabis chemical variety (chemovar) has genetic properties that will predetermine Terpenes in cannabis not only influence the flavor and taste but also The THC to CBD ratio is a key player in any cannabis experience. There are over 80 different cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. medicinal effects of cannabis (plant genetics, cannabinoid content, terpene profiles, etc.) Below is a guideline on how each compound may affect you. document the dosage, the cannabinoid percentages (THC, CBD), the strain name, and. Cannabis breeders have long been crossing plants to develop distinctive Holmes, a geneticist and founder of a cannabis genetics company Phylos Bioscience. “The biggest influence [in the entourage effect] is CBD,” says ratios and providing detailed terpene profiles in certain strains and products.