Cannabis produces compounds that bind to certain receptors on our cells. There are more than of these compounds in each cannabis. In this guide, we are exploring how marijuana helps with diabetes and then Cannabinoids: A Guide to 13 Bioactive Compounds from Weed. Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as The second compound found was cannabidiol (CBD) by Mechoulam and Shvo [Mechoulam and Chems Phys Lipids 1–13 [PubMed]; Mechoulam R., Shvo Y. () Hashish. . J Med Chem – [PubMed]; Russo E. B. () Handbook of.
Compounds Weed Bioactive Guide from A to Cannabinoids: 13
Although ICH requires sampling from authentic samples, it was impractical in this case to obtain blank matrices completely free from cannabinoids and terpenes.
In addition, contents of these compounds vary significantly in samples and some may below the LOQs. However, it was also impractical to spike every standard into samples to bring each analyte above the LOQ. In this work, we chose to spike mixed cannabinoid standard or mixed terpene standard into a solvent blank as blank matrices. Repeatability was determined by assaying a spiked blank matrices 12 times as intraday precision.
To obtain inter-day precision, six assays were repeated on two different days. Statistical analysis was applied to the linear regression line in order to determine the standard deviation SD and slope S. Each sample was quantified for both cannabinoid and terpene content, which were then subjected to cluster analysis and PCA in order to enable cannabis cultivar classification.
Observations cultivars in this case were grouped using hierarchical clustering. PCA is a commonly used multivariate technique to detect patterns in high-dimensional data.
PCA can also identify the critical compounds for discriminating cannabis cultivars, which is useful in choosing cultivars with specific abundant bioactive components. PCA projects the original chemical data into a new coordinate system, which is produced by calculating eigenvalues and eigenvectors from the covariance matrix of the original matrix. The eigenvectors principal components, shortened as PCs are orthogonal to each other and are ordered by significance: For better visual interpretation of the data, the first two or three PCs are reserved, resulting in a lossy data compression process.
A solvent blank was injected and no false signal peak was observed at the targeted retention time area. Five levels of cannabinoid standard solutions were injected. Specificity was demonstrated by well-separated peaks Figure 1. Regression calibration curves were visibly linear Figure 2. Additionally, the correlation coefficients for all 10 cannabinoids ranged from 0. Inter-day injection precisions were found to be less than 1. The method was precise in terms of repeatability and intermediate precision.
A solvent blank was injected and no junk peak was observed at the targeted retention time area. Six concentrations of terpene standards were injected. Specificity was demonstrated by well-separated peaks Figure 3. Regression calibration curves were visibly linear Figure 4. Additionally, the correlation coefficients for all 14 terpenes ranged from 0. For all terpenes, LODs ranged from 0. In this work, each cultivar was labelled with an identifier for convenience Table 4.
Quantitative data for cannabinoids and terpenes are listed in Tables 4 and 5 , respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied first and PCA was used to confirm the grouping results.
The levels of T-THC ranged from 7. However, if samples are grouped into clusters based on the full chemical profile 10 cannabinoids and 14 terpenes , the classification results changed Figure 6. After involving more cannabinoids and terpenes, samples were classified into four clusters, with cluster 1, 2, 3 being THC dominant and cluster 4 being CBD dominant Table 7.
Furthermore, cultivars clustered together not only have similar THC and CBD content, but also have similar full profiles. Classification based on the full chemical profile may offer more flexible and reliable choices for clinical researchers and licensed producers in terms of choosing cannabis cultivars.
Although Figure 7 gives a clear profile of all cannabinoids and terpenes levels in each cluster, some compounds are more important to the classification. In this case, 10 cannabinoids and 14 terpenes are the original 24 variables 24 dimensions in PCA. In this work, the first three PCs explain Each PC is correlated with the original 24 variables.
The first column in the loading matrix Table 8 are the correlations of PC1 with each compound. The higher the absolute value, the high the correlation.
This conclusion indicates that cultivars within close proximity along PC1 have similar combination of THCA and these terpenes, whereas separated clusters have distinct amounts of these compounds.
For instance, Clusters 1, 2 and 3 are separated along PC1 Figure 8 due to different combinations of THCA and these terpenes — this separation corresponds with cannabinoids and terpenes content in Figure 7. Additionally, Cluster 4 LM7 may be related with higher percentages of p-Cymene 0.
However, Cluster 1 only contains one cultivar, which suggests that additional data is required to make a reliable conclusion. More specifically, LM20 in Cluster 2 has 0. The loading plot for PC1 and PC2 Figure 8 gives an intuitive explanation whereby the longer the radial separation of the compound from the center, the more important the compound is in distinguishing cultivars in PC1 and PC2.
Cannabinoid and terpene contents in each cluster based on a full profile. Cross represents cultivar from Cluster 2 in the cluster analysis. Square represents cultivar from Cluster 3 in the cluster analysis. Triangle represents cultivar from Cluster 4 in the cluster analysis. After grouping these cultivars and visualizing the clusters in fewer dimensions using PCA, the grouping results were compared to the constellation plot from the cluster analysis Figures 8 and 9.
The cultivars circled in each group in the scatter plot were the same cultivars in each cluster as in the constellation plot. Existing approaches for cannabis classification may be inadequate because they analyze cannabis from botanical perspectives or based on only the two primary cannabinoids THC and CBD.
We quantified 10 cannabinoids and 14 terpenes in 32 medical cannabis samples from two licensed producers in Canada. Samples were classified using both cluster analysis and PCA.
In cluster analysis, samples were grouped into four clusters, where clusters 1, 2 and 3 are THC dominant, and cluster 4 is CBD dominant. The result was different from cluster analysis using only THC and CBD content, which supports the hypothesis that classification based exclusively on THC and CBD may be insufficient when considering all medically relevant compounds in cannabis. PCA results confirmed the cluster results and also indicated which cannabinoids and terpenes are critical in discriminating cultivars.
Currently, a systematic cultivar classification involving all commercially available cultivars in Canada has not been accomplished. However, this is necessary as these relationships will allow clinicians to identify the right cannabis cultivar with the right components to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. The ultimate goal is to develop a systematic classification and standardization method using chemical and genetic analysis techniques in tandem that can link cultivars with morphological characteristics, chemical composition, and medicinal applications.
The authors are highly grateful for full funding and facilities support from Labs- Mart Inc. Home Publications Conferences Register Contact. Guidelines Upcoming Special Issues. Research Article Open Access. Vape can be a bit expensive but think of it as an investment. CBD oils are always a safe choice as well. Oils became very popular recently since they are legal and made from industrial hemp. Download a free dosage guide that will show you the exact step-by-step process Dr.
Dustin Sulak used to successfully treat more than 18, patients with cannabis. Whatever your preferred method of consumption is, you still need to start with flowers. Use these 10 strains to get a head start.
The reason being is that this strain is known for its high levels of THCV, which is supposedly very effective in lowering blood sugar levels and improving fasting insulin levels. This compound is psychoactive but not as much as THC so be careful when consuming it. It will make you talkative and energized while taking away stress and depression.
One of the favorite strains among diabetes patients, because of its higher CBD levels. And as I mentioned earlier, anti-inflammatory effects of CBD are very strong, which is crucial for diabetes type 2. The cerebral effect of this strain is rather described as sharp than high. New users should be very careful with this strain since it contains high levels of both THC and THCV, making it very psychoactive and potent.
Pineapple Purps keeps the inflammation down and will help you feel relaxed at the same time. Pennywise is a popular medical strain, with 1: Also, Pennywise is a good remedy for sleepless nights. Cannabis is packed full of beneficial compounds, one of which are terpenes , compounds that give cannabis its unique smell and taste.
Master Kush is high in terpene called humulene, well known to suppress appetite, which is a plus for patients with diabetes.
Black Beauty is one of the strongest strains known, with a unique cannabinoid profile. Green Crack is also great for treating depression and relieving everyday stress, as well as pain related to inflammations. Its CBD content is great for keeping the insulin levels down, but keep in mind that it can boost your appetite as well. When you consume it, be extra responsible and watch what you are eating.
There is no sedative effect with Blue Diesel, which makes it a good choice for those who need to reduce insulin resistance. The research and the experiences of many patients have both shown us just how much marijuana can help in maintaining normal insulin and blood sugar levels. Journalist with a decade-long experience of using cannabis for stress relief. Her spare time is mostly divided between dancing, traveling and reading. A fabulous post which highlighted the positive sides of weed in the case of diabetes.
Like the post very much. Helena thanks for the excellent info re diabetes, esp. Will be looking for them next shopping opportunity. I was just diagnosed w diabetes. I tend to favor high thc indicas. Thank you for checking in DK! Have you tried using our tool for finding strains — https:
Cannabinoids: A Guide to 13 Bioactive Compounds from Weed
The study on Cannabis volatile compounds was performed by developing a new .. used for the analysis of cannabinoids in C. sativa extracts [3,9,13,16]. . of flavonoids in fibre-type hemp, conforming to the ICH guidelines. Bioactive Compounds in Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) the analysis of cannabinoids in C. sativa extracts [. 3.,. 9.,. ,. ] was performed in agreement with the international guidelines for analytical techniques for the. using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. Cannabis Body Packing: A Caribbean. Perspective. S.O. CAWICH, D. DAN, V. NARAYNSINGH . and 2-Arachidonoyglycerol as Bioactive Lipids