Answer your medical questions on prescription drugs, vitamins and Over the Counter medications. Find medical information, terminology and advice including . Do you worry that generic meds aren't as good as the brand-name versions interchangeable with the original, aka the 'innovator' medicine1. The Medicine Control Council should limit generic applications to seven per Do you worry that generic meds aren't as good as the brand-name versions?.
In sales began to decline for Valium and Librium, but sales of new and improved tranquilizers, such as Xanax, introduced in for the newly created diagnosis of panic disorder, soared.
Mevacor lovastatin is the first and most influential statin in the American market. The launch of Pravachol pravastatin , the second available in the United States, and the release of Zocor simvastatin made Mevacor no longer the only statin on the market.
In , Viagra was released as a treatment for erectile dysfunction. Using plants and plant substances to treat all kinds of diseases and medical conditions is believed to date back to prehistoric medicine.
The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus , the oldest known medical text of any kind, dates to about BC and represents the first documented use of any kind of drug. Ancient Babylonian medicine demonstrate the use of prescriptions in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC.
Medicinal creams and pills were employed as treatments. On the Indian subcontinent, the Atharvaveda , a sacred text of Hinduism whose core dates from the 2nd millennium BC, although the hymns recorded in it are believed to be older, is the first Indic text dealing with medicine. It describes plant-based drugs to counter diseases. The Hippocratic Oath for physicians, attributed to 5th century BC Greece, refers to the existence of "deadly drugs", and ancient Greek physicians imported drugs from Egypt and elsewhere.
Medieval medicine saw advances in surgery, but few truly effective drugs existed, beyond opium found in such extremely popular drugs as the "Great Rest" of the Antidotarium Nicolai at the time  and quinine. Folklore cures and potentially poisonous metal-based compounds were popular treatments.
Theodoric Borgognoni , — , one of the most significant surgeons of the medieval period, responsible for introducing and promoting important surgical advances including basic antiseptic practice and the use of anaesthetics. Garcia de Orta described some herbal treatments that were used. For most of the 19th century, drugs were not highly effective, leading Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
During the First World War , Alexis Carrel and Henry Dakin developed the Carrel-Dakin method of treating wounds with an irrigation, Dakin's solution, a germicide which helped prevent gangrene. In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War saw the introduction of widespread and effective antimicrobial therapy with the development and mass production of penicillin antibiotics, made possible by the pressures of the war and the collaboration of British scientists with the American pharmaceutical industry.
Medicines commonly used by the late s included aspirin , codeine , and morphine for pain; digitalis , nitroglycerin , and quinine for heart disorders, and insulin for diabetes.
Other drugs included antitoxins , a few biological vaccines, and a few synthetic drugs. In the s antibiotics emerged: Drugs increasingly became "the center of medical practice". Increasingly, biotechnology is used to discover biopharmaceuticals. In the s new psychiatric drugs, notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine , were designed in laboratories and slowly came into preferred use. Although often accepted as an advance in some ways, there was some opposition, due to serious adverse effects such as tardive dyskinesia.
Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the drugs when not subject to psychiatric control. Governments have been heavily involved in the regulation of drug development and drug sales. The Humphrey-Durham Amendment required certain drugs to be sold by prescription. In a subsequent amendment required new drugs to be tested for efficacy and safety in clinical trials.
Until the s, drug prices were not a major concern for doctors and patients. As more drugs became prescribed for chronic illnesses, however, costs became burdensome, and by the s nearly every U. This also led to the U. As of , the United States is the leader in medical research , including pharmaceutical development. France, which imposes price controls, developed three. Throughout the s outcomes were similar. Controversies concerning pharmaceutical drugs include patient access to drugs under development and not yet approved, pricing, and environmental issues.
Governments worldwide have created provisions for granting access to drugs prior to approval for patients who have exhausted all alternative treatment options and do not match clinical trial entry criteria. Often grouped under the labels of compassionate use, expanded access , or named patient supply, these programs are governed by rules which vary by country defining access criteria, data collection, promotion, and control of drug distribution.
These mechanisms, which fall under the label of expanded access programs, provide access to drugs for groups of patients or individuals residing in the US. Outside the US, Named Patient Programs provide controlled, pre-approval access to drugs in response to requests by physicians on behalf of specific, or "named", patients before those medicines are licensed in the patient's home country.
Through these programs, patients are able to access drugs in late-stage clinical trials or approved in other countries for a genuine, unmet medical need, before those drugs have been licensed in the patient's home country. Patients who have not been able to get access to drugs in development have organized and advocated for greater access.
In , BioMarin Pharmaceutical was at the center of a high-profile debate regarding expanded access of cancer patients to experimental drugs. Essential medicines as defined by the World Health Organization WHO are "those drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population; they should therefore be available at all times in adequate amounts and in appropriate dosage forms, at a price the community can afford. The Access to Medicine Index tracks how well pharmaceutical companies make their products available in the developing world.
World Trade Organization negotiations in the s, including the TRIPS Agreement and the Doha Declaration , have centered on issues at the intersection of international trade in pharmaceuticals and intellectual property rights , with developed world nations seeking strong intellectual property rights to protect investments made to develop new drugs, and developing world nations seeking to promote their generic pharmaceuticals industries and their ability to make medicine available to their people via compulsory licenses.
Some have raised ethical objections specifically with respect to pharmaceutical patents and the high prices for drugs that they enable their proprietors to charge, which poor people in the developed world, and developing world, cannot afford. Novartis fought a protracted battle with the government of India over the patenting of its drug, Gleevec , in India, which ended up in India's Supreme Court in a case known as Novartis v.
The Supreme Court ruled narrowly against Novartis, but opponents of patenting drugs claimed it as a major victory. The environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products is controversial. PPCPs are substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock.
PPCPs comprise a diverse collection of thousands of chemical substances, including prescription and over-the-counter therapeutic drugs, veterinary drugs, fragrances, and cosmetics.
PPCPs have been detected in water bodies throughout the world and ones that persist in the environment are called Environmental Persistent Pharmaceutical Pollutants.
The effects of these chemicals on humans and the environment are not yet known, but to date there is no scientific evidence that they affect human health. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Medicine disambiguation and Medication disambiguation.
Regulation of therapeutic goods. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Prescription drug prices in the United States. List of largest selling pharmaceutical products. Named patient programs and Expanded access. Essential medicines and Societal views on patents. Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Medication. Widespread mammography screening and big advances in breast cancer treatment have saved hundreds of thousands of American women's lives since , a new study estimates.
Researchers tracked U. They found the number of breast cancer deaths prevented during that Many studies have shown that color affects both mood and behavior. Color can help you go from sad to happy or angry to calm. When it comes to mood, there are four primary colors. Though different shades within each of the four can have different effects, some generalities exist.
Red symbolizes power and strength and may even stimulate aggression The agency offers parents this advice: A child can get a thermal burn even in mild weather. Watch for uncoated metal equipment, dark-colored plastics, asphalt Young children with autism are more than twice as likely to have sleep problems than typical kids or those with other developmental delays, a new study reports.
Several factors profoundly affect the sleep of 2- to 5-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder ASD , said lead researcher Dr. They are more likely to resist their bedtime, have Heart patients prescribed opioid painkillers when they leave the hospital may be less likely to get follow-up care and slightly more likely to die, a new study finds.
Men and women alike want defined abs. But you don't have to achieve a "six-pack" -- the nickname for the three most visible pairs of abdominal muscles -- to get the benefits of a stronger middle, needed to support your back. Recently added consumer and prescribing information: Us humans are creatures of habit and like routine. Which means changing certain aspects of our diet or lifestyle that we have enjoyed for years can be daunting.
But if you knew that just a small change could help prevent cancer, would you do it? Experts estimate up to four out of ten cancers could […]. We go to a doctor and are given a script for medications to take to make us better. But why does this happen? Is it because most […]. We should take our hats off to the people diagnosed with cluster headache. Not only do they experience pain so excruciating that their condition has earned a reputation as being the most painful disorder known to mankind, but the lack of effective treatments means little can be done to relieve each agonizing episode.
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7 of the most expensive medical treatments in the world The condition can also be caused by some medications, a genetic fault or unknown. Discovery MedXpress is a convenient medicine ordering service, particularly for monthly medicine repeats. You can get your medicine delivered to you or collect . Learn about medication safety and get practical tips to make sure you are He needed a way to remember what each medicine was for, how much to take, and.