There is a big difference between THC & CBD -- one is psychoactive and the other is not. Find out THC is Cannabis' Most Well-known and Desired Compound. Cannabis is also the most widely used illicit drug in the world and its use has . of the cannabis plant are also referred to as phytocannabinoids of which dTHC is . As dTHC is the main ingredient which causes the desired 'stoned' effect. Mar 7, There are over 80 different cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. THC is the most well known compound in the cannabis plant and contributes strains for different times of day depending on the desired medicinal outcomes.
Most and Desired is THC Compound Well-known Cannabis’
The ruling was contrary to existing evidence, which suggests the chemical is safe and could have multiple important uses as medicine. Many cannabis advocates consider it a miracle medicine , capable of relieving conditions as disparate as depression, arthritis and diabetes.
The perception of its widespread medical benefits have made the chemical a rallying cry for legalization advocates. The primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol THC. But THC is only one of the scores of chemicals — known as cannabinoids — produced by the cannabis plant. So far, CBD is the most promising compound from both a marketing and a medical perspective.
While studies have shown CBD to have anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-psychotic properties , it has seen only minimal testing in human clinical trials, where scientists determine what a drug does, how much patients should take, its side effects and so on. Despite the government ruling, CBD is widely available over the counter in dispensaries in states where marijuana is legal. One example would be if you are experiencing inflammation, yet you are wanting to go about your day normally, without the psychotropic effects of THC.
Other times you may be in enough pain that you would like something that takes your mind off the pain while also offering pain relief. In one survey , participants reported that indicas helped more than sativas when it came to headaches, joint pain, neuropathy, and spasticity.
Users also reported indicas to be more helpful when it comes to sleep and sedation. Lastly, there are countless user reports on specific strains of weed that have been found to be powerful for relieving pain. While some of these strains are high CBD, indica strains, some strains of weed used for pain do not fall into this category.
It may be that the other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids have come together in a harmonious balance that leads to strong pain-relieving properties. There are limited studies examining the effect of CBD alone on pain in humans. When it comes to CBD only studies, the majority are preclinical or animal studies.
That said, the research conducted thus far, along with countless user reports, suggests that CBD itself may be able to help relieve pain. Activation of cannabinoid receptors has been linked to the inhibition of pain. The exact mechanisms of action are still being researched, however, CBD has been found to increase the levels of endocannabinoids in the body, specifically anandamide. It is plausible that this increase in endogenous endocannabinoids could have an impact on pain.
Another study suggests that CBD in rats induced suppression of chronic inflammation and neuropathic pain through potentiating glycine receptors. Here we will examine the limited scientific evidence, along with theories relating to the use of CBD for pain.
Neuropathic pain, also known as nerve pain, is a unique type of pain that is caused by injured, dysfunctional, or irritated nerves. This pain tends to be chronic and severe, and with no known cure or remedy, every individual is left to try numerous strategies to find something that works for them. Some of the most common sources of neuropathy include diabetes, injury, cancer, infections, alcoholism, and autoimmune disorders. In an animal study , researchers found that oral supplementation of CBD led to improvements in neuropathic pain in rats.
Back pain is one of the most common forms of both acute and chronic pain. Acute back pain tends to be caused by an injury, such as by falling or lifting something heavy.
Chronic back pain is that which lasts more than three months and is often caused by a ruptured or bulging disc, arthritis, osteoporosis, scoliosis, or nerve pain. Some back pain is partly caused by inflammation, and numerous preclinical and animal studies have found benefits of CBD for inflammation. Through possible reductions in both nerve and inflammatory pain, CBD may help relieve back pain.
When it comes to localized pain, topical CBD lotion or creams may be a great option. While human studies on the efficacy of CBD lotion are lacking, there are plenty of animal studies and personal accounts to support this use. In one study , researchers found that rats with arthritis treated with transdermal CBD experienced reductions in pain-related behaviors and inflammation. Cannabis and CBD dosing for pain are highly individual.
Studies have found a bell-shaped dose-response curve with cannabis extract, meaning that it slowly becomes more effective until it hits a certain point, and then the effectiveness decreases. To further complicate matters, the effective dose found in human studies varies greatly from one condition and one study to the next.
However, doses of Sativex, an oral spray that delivers 2. CBD dosage for pain has not been examined in any human studies. Like the Cannabis sativa extract, studies have found that exceeding the optimal dose of CBD can lead to a reduction in efficacy. In a study examining the effect of CBD on anxiety, mg and mg were not effective, where mg was.
So where, then, should you start when it comes to dosing Cannabis sativa or CBD oil? Follow these steps when adding in a cannabis or CBD oil product:. Stay at the same dose for 3 or more days, evaluating your response. Increase your dose until you find the best dose for you.
Studies and anecdotal reports have shown that cannabis is good for pain. Whether you enjoy smoking weed or not, there are numerous products available for you to use if you live in a state where pot is legal. This allows you to access the full potential of the wide array of healthful and anti-inflammatory compounds found in the Cannabis sativa plant.
Best Marijuana for Pain Relief: Why use cannabis for pain relief? The history of cannabis: The magnitude of down regulation is associated with cumulative cannabis exposure, and is reversed after one month of abstinence. A meta analysis found that, although a longer period of abstinence was associated with smaller magnitudes of impairment, both retrospective and prospective memory were impaired in cannabis users.
The authors concluded that some, but not all, of the deficits associated with cannabis use were reversible. The study following the largest number of heavy cannabis users reported that IQ declined between ages 7—13 and age Poorer school performance and increased incidence of leaving school early were both associated with cannabis use, although a causal relationship was not established.
At an epidemiological level, a dose response relationship exists between cannabis use and increased risk of psychosis    and earlier onset of psychosis. It is not clear whether cannabis use affects the rate of suicide. Cannabis abuse disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, minus the criterion related to legal troubles.
THC, the principal psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, has low toxicity. Cannabis has not been reported to cause fatal overdose in humans. The high lipid-solubility of cannabinoids results in their persisting in the body for long periods of time. Not until the end of the 20th century was the specific mechanism of action of THC at the neuronal level studied.
These actions can be blocked by the selective CB 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant SR , which has been shown in clinical trials to be an effective treatment for smoking cessation , weight loss , and as a means of controlling or reducing metabolic syndrome risk factors. Via CB 1 receptor activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects. THC and its major inactive metabolite, THC-COOH, can be measured in blood, urine, hair, oral fluid or sweat using chromatographic techniques as part of a drug use testing program or a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal offense.
These tests cannot, however, distinguish authorized cannabis smoking for medical purposes from unauthorized recreational smoking. The Duquenois—Levine test is commonly used as a screening test in the field, but it cannot definitively confirm the presence of cannabis, as a large range of substances have been shown to give false positives.
A review found that the THC content in marijuana had increased worldwide from to It is likely that the higher THC content allows people to ingest less tar. At the same time, CBD levels in seized samples have lowered, in part because of the desire to produce higher THC levels and because more illegal growers cultivate indoors using artificial lights.
This helps avoid detection but reduces the CBD production of the plant. The stalks and seeds have "much lower THC levels". After revisions to cannabis scheduling in the UK, the government moved cannabis back from a class C to a class B drug. A purported reason was the appearance of high potency cannabis. Marijuana or marihuana herbal cannabis ,  consists of the dried flowers and subtending leaves and stems of the female Cannabis plant.
Although herbal cannabis and industrial hemp derive from the same species and contain the psychoactive component THC , they are distinct strains with unique biochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of CBD, which decreases the psychoactive effects  .
Kief is a powder, rich in trichomes ,  which can be sifted from the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants and either consumed in powder form or compressed to produce cakes of hashish.
Hashish also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash is a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from.
Cannabinoids can be extracted from cannabis plant matter using high- proof spirits often grain alcohol to create a tincture , often referred to as "green dragon". Hash oil is a resinous matrix of cannabinoids obtained from the Cannabis plant by solvent extraction ,  formed into a hardened or viscous mass. There are many varieties of cannabis infusions owing to the variety of non-volatile solvents used.
Examples of solvents used in this process are cocoa butter, dairy butter, cooking oil, glycerine , and skin moisturizers. Depending on the solvent, these may be used in cannabis foods or applied topically. Medical marijuana refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as synthetic  THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories, including Canada,  Belgium , Australia, the Netherlands , Spain, and many U.
This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws. There is evidence supporting the use of cannabis or its derivatives in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. Lower levels of evidence support its use for AIDS wasting syndrome, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, and glaucoma.
Cannabis is indigenous to Central Asia  and the Indian subcontinent,  and its use for fabric and rope dates back to the Neolithic age in China and Japan. Cannabis was known to the ancient Assyrians , who discovered its psychoactive properties through the Iranians. Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus.
AD were found to have traces of cannabis. Following an — travel in North Africa and the Middle East, French physician Jacques-Joseph Moreau wrote on the psychological effects of cannabis use; he was a member of Paris' Club des Hashischins.
Cannabis was criminalized in various countries beginning in the 19th century. The British colonies of Mauritius banned cannabis in over concerns on its effect on Indian indentured workers;  the same occurred in British Singapore in In , a compromise was made at an international conference in The Hague about the International Opium Convention that banned exportation of "Indian hemp" to countries that had prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes".
It also required parties to "exercise an effective control of such a nature as to prevent the illicit international traffic in Indian hemp and especially in the resin". In , the Dutch government divided drugs into more- and less-dangerous categories, with cannabis being in the lesser category.
Accordingly, possession of 30 grams or less was made a misdemeanor. Other types of sales and transportation are not permitted, although the general approach toward cannabis was lenient even before official decriminalisation. In Uruguay, President Jose Mujica signed legislation to legalize recreational cannabis in December , making Uruguay the first country in the modern era to legalize cannabis.
In August , Uruguay legalized growing up to six plants at home, as well as the formation of growing clubs, and a state-controlled marijuana dispensary regime. As of October 17, when recreational use of cannabis was legalized in Canada, dietary supplements for human use and veterinary health products containing not more than 10 parts per million of THC extract were approved for marketing; Nabiximols as Sativex is used as a prescription drug in Canada.
The United Nations' World Drug Report stated that cannabis "was the world's most widely produced, trafficked, and consumed drug in the world in ", and estimated between million and million users globally in Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, possession or transfer of cannabis.
Many jurisdictions have lessened the penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis so that it is punished by confiscation and sometimes a fine, rather than imprisonment, focusing more on those who traffic the drug on the black market. In some areas where cannabis use had been historically tolerated, new restrictions were instituted, such as the closing of cannabis coffee shops near the borders of the Netherlands,  and closing of coffee shops near secondary schools in the Netherlands.
Simple possession can carry long prison terms in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution. In December , the U. At least cities across California have enacted bans in recent years. In December , Uruguay became the first country to legalize growing, sale and use of cannabis.
In November , Uttarakhand became the first state of India to legalize the cultivation of hemp for industrial purposes. On October 17, , Australian health minister Sussan Ley presented a new law that will allow the cultivation of cannabis for scientific research and medical trials on patients. As the drug has increasingly come to be seen as a health issue instead of criminal behavior, marijuana has also been legalized or decriminalized in: Between and , eleven states decriminalized marijuana.
In the US, men are over twice as likely to use marijuana as women and year-olds are six times more likely to use as over year-olds. Marijuana use in the United States is three times above the global average, but in line with other Western democracies. It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late s and early '70s when THC was first discovered and understood.
However, potent seedless cannabis such as " Thai sticks " were already available at that time. Sinsemilla Spanish for "without seed" is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants which produce little THC themselves are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination.
Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics , cloning , high-intensity artificial lighting , and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response in part to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky. It is often cited that the average levels of THC in cannabis sold in the United States rose dramatically between the s and , but such statements are likely skewed because undue weight is given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent samples.
It is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa and C. The price or street value of cannabis varies widely depending on geographic area and potency. The Gateway Hypothesis states that cannabis use increases the probability of trying "harder" drugs.
The hypothesis has been hotly debated as it is regarded by some as the primary rationale for the United States prohibition on cannabis use. Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis,  young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs.
The gateway effect may appear due to social factors involved in using any illegal drug. Because of the illegal status of cannabis, its consumers are likely to find themselves in situations allowing them to acquaint with individuals using or selling other illegal drugs. In turn alcohol and tobacco are easier to obtain at an earlier point than is cannabis though the reverse may be true in some areas , thus leading to the "gateway sequence" in those individuals since they are most likely to experiment with any drug offered.
An alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction CLA theory. It states that some individuals are, for various reasons, willing to try multiple recreational substances. The "gateway" drugs are merely those that are usually available at an earlier age than the harder drugs. Researchers have noted in an extensive review that it is dangerous to present the sequence of events described in gateway "theory" in causative terms as this hinders both research and intervention.
Cannabis research is challenging since the plant is illegal in most countries. There are also other difficulties in researching the effects of cannabis. Many people who smoke cannabis also smoke tobacco. Another difficulty researchers have is in recruiting people who smoke cannabis into studies. Because cannabis is an illegal drug in many countries, people may be reluctant to take part in research, and if they do agree to take part, they may not say how much cannabis they actually smoke.
A review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios. Cannabis use started to become popular in the United States in the s. Private use of cannabis was legalized in September after a unanimous decision by the Constitutional Court in Johannesburg.
Media related to Cannabis at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cannabis A flowering cannabis plant. Medical cannabis from state-controlled production: Anlage III , other cannabis: Schedule I legal in 9 states for recreational use UN: Entheogenic use of cannabis.
Long-term effects of cannabis. History of cannabis and Timeline of cannabis law. Prohibition of drugs and Drug liberalization. Illegal but often unenforced. Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 17 July American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.
See also article on Marijuana as a word. Spanish Word Histories and Mysteries: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential.
What is CBD? The 'miracle' cannabis compound that doesn't get you high
May 28, But THC is only one of the scores of chemicals – known as So far, CBD is the most promising compound from both a marketing and a medical perspective. Fortunately, like THC, CBD appears to be well tolerated; as far as I can tell, there .. of Professor David Nutt after he didn't say what they wanted?. Jul 31, But the compound THC, one of over found in marijuana, is actually more complex than that. THC, also called tetrahydrocannabinol, is the compound in cannabis that Read More on How to Trade Cannabis Stocks Via Real Money as well as increased incidents of suicide attempts and completion. Nov 6, THC! CBD! Terpenoids! Cannabis Science Is Getting Hairy . One of THC's more famous treatments, for instance, is for lowering eye pressure.