Deltoid Intramuscular injection - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Septische und aseptische Komplikationen in Verbindung mit Kortikoid-InjektionenEpidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients intramusuclar are anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparins LMWH or heparinoids and are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include: Monitor patients complixations for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment intramuscular steroid injection complications necessary.
Septic and Aseptic Complications of Corticosteroid Injections
Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients who are anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparins LMWH or heparinoids and are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture.
These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include: Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment.
If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary. It is available in a multiple dose 2 mL vial. Sodium hydroxide may be added to achieve a pH range of 5. Tinzaparin sodium is the sodium salt of a low molecular weight heparin obtained by controlled enzymatic depolymerization of heparin from porcine intestinal mucosa using heparinase from Flavobacterium heparinum.
The majority of the components have a 2-O-sulphoenepyranosuronic acid structure at the non-reducing end and a 2-N,6-O-disulpho-D-glucosamine structure at the reducing end of the chain. Potency is determined by means of a biological assay and interpreted by the first International Low Molecular Weight Heparin Standard as units of anti-factor Xa anti-Xa activity per milligram. The mean tinzaparin sodium anti-factor Xa activity is approximately IU per milligram.
The average molecular weight ranges between 5, and 7, daltons. The molecular weight distribution is:. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: It must not be administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection.
Administration should be alternated between the left and right anterolateral and left and right posterolateral abdominal wall. The injection site should be varied daily. The whole length of the needle should be introduced into a skin fold held between the thumb and forefinger; the skin fold should be held throughout the injection. To minimize bruising, do not rub the injection site after completion of the injection.
The data are provided in Table 4. In all groups treatment continued for approximately 6 to 8 days, and all patients received oral anticoagulant treatment commencing in the first 2 to 3 days. Fatal or nonfatal hemorrhage from any tissue or organ can occur. The signs, symptoms, and severity will vary according to the location and degree or extent of the bleeding.
Hemorrhagic complications may present as, but are not limited to, paralysis; paresthesia ; headache, chest , abdomen , joint, muscle or other pain; dizziness; shortness of breath , difficult breathing or swallowing; swelling; weakness; hypotension , shock , or coma.
Therefore, the possibility of hemorrhage should be considered in evaluating the condition of any anticoagulated patient with complaints which do not indicate an obvious diagnosis see WARNINGS , Hemorrhage. Similar increases in aminotransferase levels have also been observed in patients and healthy volunteers treated with heparin and other low molecular weight heparins. Heart Rate and Rhythm Disorders: Myo-, Endo-, Pericardial and Valve Disorders: Skin and Appendages Disorders: Serious adverse events reported in clinical trials or from post-marketing experience are included in Tables 6 and 7, respectively:.
Similar increases in transaminase levels have also been observed in patients and volunteers treated with heparin and other low molecular weight heparins. Each of these medications has its own instructions for use. Oral anticoagulants were co-administered beginning on Days and study treatment was continued for at least five days until the international normalized ratio INR was between on two successive days; oral anticoagulants were then continued alone and patients were followed until 90 days after the start of treatment.
Overall mortality rates were 6. Hemorrhage in some cases has been reported to result in death or permanent disability. A hemorrhagic event should be seriously considered in the presence of an unexplained fall in hematocrit , hemoglobin , or blood pressure.
Thrombocytopenia of any degree should be monitored closely. Cases of thrombocytopenia with disseminated thrombosis also have been observed in clinical practice with heparins, and low molecular weight heparins, including tinzaparin sodium. Some of these cases were complicated by organ infarction with secondary organ dysfunction or limb ischemia, and have resulted in death.
The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown, but is probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is more frequent in asthmatic people than in non-asthmatic people. Priapism has been reported from post-marketing surveillance as a rare occurrence. In some cases surgical intervention was required. Consistent with expected age-related changes in renal function, elderly patients and patients with renal insufficiency may show reduced elimination of tinzaparin sodium.
No long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of tinzaparin sodium. Tinzaparin sodium displayed no genotoxic potential in an in vitro bacterial cell mutation assay AMES test , in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell forward gene mutation test, in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay, and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcome regardless of drug exposure.
Pregnancy alone confers an increased risk for thromboembolism that is even higher for women with preexisting thromboembolic disease, certain high risk pregnancy conditions, and a history of complications during a previous pregnancy. All patients receiving anticoagulants such as tinzaparin, including pregnant women, are at risk for bleeding.
Pregnant women receiving tinzaparin should be carefully monitored for evidence of bleeding or excessive anticoagulation. Pregnant women should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus and the mother if tinzaparin is administered during pregnancy.
Consideration for use of a shorter acting agent should be specifically addressed as delivery approaches. Duration of exposure ranged from 3 to days median days. From 55 pregnancies, there were 50 live births, 3 first trimester miscarriages, and 2 intrauterine deaths at 17 and 30 weeks.
A cause and effect relationship for the above observations has not been established. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
In studies where tinzaparin sodium was administered subcutaneously to lactating rats, very low levels of tinzaparin sodium were found in breast milk. It is not known whether tinzaparin sodium is excreted in human milk. Safety and effectiveness of tinzaparin sodium in pediatric patients have not been established.
In these studies, no significant overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Nosebleeds, blood in urine or tarry stools may be noted as the first signs of bleeding. Easy bruising or petechial hemorrhages may precede frank bleeding. In case of minor bleeding, the patient should be monitored for signs of more severe bleeding.
In the event that this is ineffective, protamine sulfate can be administered. A second infusion of 0. Even with the additional dose of protamine, the aPTT may remain more prolonged than would usually be found following administration of protamine to reverse unfractionated heparin. Particular care should be taken to avoid overdosage with protamine sulfate. Administration of protamine sulfate can cause severe hypotensive and anaphylactoid reactions. Because fatal reactions have been reported with protamine sulfate, it should be given only when resuscitation facilities are readily available.
Symptoms of acute toxicity included hematoma formation and bleeding at the injection site, anemia , decreased motor activity, unsteady gait, piloerection , and ptosis. Tinzaparin sodium is a low molecular weight heparin with antithrombotic properties. Tinzaparin sodium inhibits reactions that lead to the clotting of blood including the formation of fibrin clots, both in vitro and in vivo. It acts as a potent co-inhibitor of several activated coagulation factors, especially Factors Xa and IIa thrombin.
The primary inhibitory activity is mediated through the plasma protease inhibitor, antithrombin. Bleeding time is usually unaffected by tinzaparin sodium. Activated partial thromboplastin time aPTT is prolonged by therapeutic doses of tinzaparin sodium used in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis DVT.
Prothrombin time PT may be slightly prolonged with tinzaparin sodium treatment but usually remains within the normal range.
Neither unfractionated heparin nor tinzaparin sodium have intrinsic fibrinolytic activity; therefore, they do not lyse existing clots. Tinzaparin sodium induces release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor, which may contribute to the antithrombotic effect. Heparin is also known to have a variety of actions that are independent of its anticoagulant effects.
These include interactions with endothelial cell growth factors, inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, activation of lipoprotein lipase, suppression of aldosterone secretion, and induction of platelet aggregation. Anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities are the primary biomarkers for assessing tinzaparin sodium exposure because plasma concentrations of low molecular weight heparins cannot be measured directly. Because of analytical assay limitations, anti-Xa activity is the more widely used biomarker.
The measurements of anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities in plasma serve as surrogates for the concentrations of molecules which contain the high-affinity binding site for antithrombin anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities.
Monitoring patients based on anti-Xa activity is generally not advised. The data are provided in Figure 1 and Table 2 below. Studies with tinzaparin sodium in healthy volunteers and patients have been conducted with both fixed-and weight-adjusted dose administration. Mean dose administered was Plasma levels of anti-Xa activity increase in the first 2 to 3 hours following SC injection of tinzaparin sodium and reach a maximum within 4 to 5 hours.
Maximum concentrations Cmax of 0. Following a single SC injection of tinzaparin sodium, the mean anti-Xa to anti-IIa activity ratio, based on the area under the anti-Xa and anti-IIa time profiles, is 2. The volume of distribution of tinzaparin sodium ranges from 3.
These values are similar in magnitude to blood volume, suggesting that the distribution of anti-Xa activity is limited to the central compartment. Clearance following IV administration of 4, IU tinzaparin sodium is approximately 1. The primary route of elimination is renal.
See Figure 1 and Table 2. However, a reduction in tinzaparin sodium clearance was observed in patients with impaired renal function reduced calculated creatinine clearance see Special Populations, Renal Impairment.
Septische und aseptische Komplikationen in Verbindung mit Kortikoid-Injektionen
Although intralesional corticosteroid injection of subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules . Investigating the effects of intramuscular steroid to treat disease activity in. Septic and aseptic complications of corticosteroid injections: an assessment of cases reviewed by expert commissions and mediation boards from to. Learn about Innohep (Tinzaparin) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions It must not be administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection.